Friday, 12 July 2013


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search International Business Machines Corporation Type Public Traded as NYSE: IBM Dow Jones Industrial Average Component S&P 500 Component Industry Computer hardware, Computer software, IT services, IT consulting Founded Endicott, New York, U.S. (June 16, 1911 (1911-06-16) (102 years ago)) Founder(s) Charles Ranlett Flint Headquarters Armonk, New York, U.S. Area served Worldwide Key people Ginni Rometty (Chairman, President, and CEO) Products See IBM products Revenue US$ 106.916 billion (2011) Operating income US$ 021.90 billion (2012) Net income US$ 016.60 billion (2012) Total assets US$ 119.21 billion (2012) Total equity US$ 018.86 billion (2012) Employees 434,246 (December 31, 2012) Divisions Financing, Hardware, Services, Software Website

International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM, is a multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.

The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Security analysts nicknamed IBM Big Blue in recognition of IBM's common use of blue in products, packaging, and logo.

In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the No. 2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees (433,362), the No. 4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the No. 9 most profitable, and the No. 19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the No. 31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include No. 1 company for leaders (Fortune), No. 1 green company worldwide (Newsweek), No. 2 best global brand (Interbrand), No. 2 most respected company (Barron's), No. 5 most admired company (Fortune), and No. 18 most innovative company (Fast Company).

IBM has 12 research laboratories worldwide and, as of 2013, has held the record for most patents generated by a company for 20 consecutive years. Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science. Notable inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code (UPC), the financial swap, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, and Watson artificial intelligence.

The company has undergone several organizational changes since its inception, acquiring companies such as Kenexa (2012) and SPSS (2009) and organizations such as PwC's consulting business (2002), spinning off companies like Lexmark (1991), and selling off product lines like ThinkPad to Lenovo (2005).

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